Mumbai | India
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Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई) (state tourism office), a cosmopolitan metropolis, earlier known as Bombay, is the largest city in India and the capital of the state Maharashtra. Mumbai was originally a conglomeration of seven islands on the Konkan coastline which over time were joined to form the island city of Bombay. The island was in turn joined with the neighbouring island of Salsette to form Greater Bombay. The city has an estimated metropolitan population of 21 million (2005), making it one of the world's most populous cities. Mumbai is undoubtedly the commercial capital of India and is one of the predominant port cities in the country. Mumbai's nature as the most eclectic and cosmopolitan Indian city is symbolized in the presence of Bollywood within the city, the centre of the globally-influential Hindi film and TV industries. It is also home to India's largest slum population and the iconic Gateway of India built on the waterfront of Mumbai Harbour during the British Raj. The name Bombay comes from Bom Bahia ("The Good bay" in Portuguese), a name given by explorer Francis Almeida. Mumbai is named after goddess Mumba devi of the Koli community.

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1 Understand 1.1 Name 1.2 History 1.3 Culture and attitudes 1.4 Climate Carvings at the Elephanta CavesMumbai is a bustling, diverse metropolis with a flair of its own. The entrepreneurial spirit and pulsing pace of life provides a sharp contrast to much of the rest of India. Name There has been much debate regarding the original name of the city. Some say the current name of the city Mumbai is the original name; and is an eponym derived from "Mumba", the name of the local Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, and "Aai", meaning "mother" in Marathi. Others claim Bombay was an anglicized version of Bom Bahia, a name given by the Portuguese to mean "Beautiful Bay" and later made popular by the British as the name of the Bombay state. The name was officially changed from Bombay to Mumbai in 1995. Although Bombay and Mumbai are both used, people who explicitly use "Bombay" are generally non-Marathi speakers whereas "Mumbai" proponents primarily speak Marathi. In the West, Mumbai has become more commonly accepted in order to avoid controversy. The city is also fondly called आमची मुंबई ("our Mumbai"). History Though the seven islands that now make up the city have a long recorded history like any other place in India, their journey to form the city of Mumbai really started in 1498, when the Portuguese took them over from the Sultan of Gujarat. They built a settlement, forts, and churches, (including the strange looking Portuguese Church that stands to this day.) They, however, could not make much of their possession and the seven islands were handed over to England in 1661 as part of the dowry of Catherine de Braganza when she married Charles II of England. He wasn't very interested in the islands either, and he leased them to the British East India Company for £10 a year in 1668. The East India Company built the docks, the trading posts, and the fort that would form the nerve centre of the city. They also started off the long process of reclaiming land and joining the islands, an activity which went on until the 1960s. The port attracted industries and the entrepreneurial communities like the Parsis, Gujaratis, and Marwaris (from Rajasthan) migrated and set up trading companies and factories in the late 19th century. Industries attracted migrant labor from different parts of the country. The successive waves of migration shaped the character of the city and its neighborhoods. The city that owes its existence to the efforts of the British was also the birthplace of the Indian National Congress, which played an overwhelmingly important role in the independence movement. The city whose mills were built by industrialists from across the country is the capital of Maharashtra state, which was carved on linguistic lines for Marathi speakers. In the 80s, high labour costs and unrest forced the closure of many textile mills and the city went into a decline from which it started recovering only in the late 90s. The high population put a strain on the infrastructure. The rail and road network has been undergoing a steady improvement over the 90s, but because of the magnitude of the task, the roads seem to be perennially under construction. Mumbai has now reinvented itself as a hub for the Service industry. In January 1993, in the wake of the destruction of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya, a wave of riots swept the city, with over 1,000 people killed, the vast majority of whom were Muslims. Relations between the city's various ethnic groups have been tense ever since, with several terrorist outrages (see #Stay safe) adding fuel to the fire. Culture and attitudes Mumbai is the most cosmopolitan city in India. In comparison with the rest of the country, the city is quite liberal. With a regular influx of immigrants from rest of India, the citizens, popularly known as 'Mumbaikers', have shown remarkable tolerance towards other cultures, making it a true cultural melting pot. However this tolerance has sometimes bowed under external pressures. Between the 60s and 80s, there was resentment about the non-Marathi speakers taking away jobs. The 1991 and 1993 riots between Hindus and Muslims did affect this spirit; however, the city managed to recover from these, once again proudly highlighting true 'spirit of Mumbai'. Climate @media all and (max-width:720px){body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .climate-table{float:none!important;clear:none!important;margin-right:0!important}body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .climate-table .infobox .infobox{}} Mumbai has three main seasons — summer, monsoon, and winter (milder summer). The best time to visit is during the winter between November and February. Humidity is also less during the winter, when the climate is pleasant; the minimum temperature is 17°C and the maximum is 30-31°C. Summer is from March to May, as well as the month of October with highs in the low to mid 30s (roughly 80-90°F). It is hot and humid during this time. June to September is the monsoon season when the city is lashed by heavy rains. The city gets flooded two or three times and normal life gets disrupted during this season. Climate is humid pretty much throughout the year because the city rests on the coast.

Mumbai

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1 Get in 1.1 By plane 1.2 By boat 1.3 By train 1.4 By car 1.5 By bus By plane Mumbai has excellent connectivity with most of the major cities around the world, including, New York, London, Dubai, Tel Aviv, Singapore, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur to name a few. If you are flying from Europe it is generally cheaper to fly from London, and there are many frequent flights available. All domestic sectors are linked to Mumbai, making it the second busiest hub in the country next to Delhi. Interior of Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (International Terminal) Mumbai's 19.09974872.874991 Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (BOM IATA) is one India's busiest airports and one of the main international gateways to the country. Many international airlines such as British Airways, Delta, Emirates, Malaysia Airlines, Lufthansa & Singapore Airlines fly into Mumbai. Low-cost carriers such as Air Asia also fly to the city. By boat Numerous travel organizations now offer cruises to Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai, etc. Though the cruise industry is still developing, Mumbai can be reached by such cruises. Ferries from Ferry Wharf allow cheap access to islands and beaches in the vicinity of the city and the Elephanta Caves. By train Wikivoyage has a guide to Rail travel in India Trains arrive in Mumbai from all over India. The Central line serves connectivity to Southern India, Eastern India, and parts of North India. The key stations are 18.940772.83551 Chattrapati Shivaji Terminus, CST [CSTM] (formerly Victoria Terminus, known just as VT), 19.018772.84332 Dadar Terminus [DR] (for Central Line) and [DDR] (for Western Line), and 19.069972.89173 Lokmanya Tilak Terminus [LTT] (formerly called Kurla Terminus). The Western line connects to the Western states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and some parts of North India. The main termini are 18.9772.81944 Mumbai Central [BCT] and 19.064572.84115 Bandra Terminus [BDTS]. The Konkan Railway (which is a separately administered and newly built line) travels through the picturesque Konkan coast of Maharastra and is a good way to travel from Goa and Mangalore, coastal resort areas to the South. The Dadar Terminus is the destination for the line. For trains to other Indian cities, the main reservation offices are at Churchgate, Mumbai Central, and Bandra on the Western line and CST and Dadar on Central line. There are special ticket windows and quotas for foreign tourists. For bookings and tariffs on train tickets to anywhere in India from Mumbai, visit Indian railway's website. To travel unlimited on the Mumbai you can use [TOURIST TICKET]Mumbai Local Tourist Ticket provided by the Indian Railways. The Maharajas' Express is a luxury train that will take you to Delhi. By car National highway numbers 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 17, and the Mumbai-Pune expressway radiate from the city providing links to all parts of the country. The road conditions are generally better than in the rest of India. The comfortable airconditioned blue cabs are available to Pune and Ahmednagar-Nashik from opposite Asiad Bus Termina in Dadar and Lakhamsi Nappoo Rd near Dadar east railway station respectively. Distances from various cities to Mumbai are: From Other States: Ahmedabad (550 km, 12 hrs), Bangalore (998 km), Chennai (1109 km), Cochin (1384 km), Goa (593 km, 11 hrs), Hyderabad (711 km, 24 hrs), Mangalore (713 km), New Delhi (1407 km) From Maharashtra State: Amravati (673 km), Ahmednagar (300 km), Nagpur (844 km), Pune (160 km, 2.5/3hrs) By bus Mumbai is well served by buses from destinations inside India. Asiad Bus Service The bus terminal, popularly known as 'Asiad Bus Terminal' on Ambedkar Rd in Dadar east is another hub from where buses travel to Pune at regular frequency of 15 minutes to 1 hour. The fares are in the range of ₹100-₹200 and buses vary in comfort from ordinary to luxury with airconditioning. Other routes available are Mumbai - Satara, Mumbai - Nasik. The easiest way to reach the terminal is to cross over using pedestrian foot bridge to Dadar East from the Dadar Terminus and walk straight all the way (less than 5 mins) to Ambedkar Rd. Private Buses There also exist numerous private bus operators who operate a large number of services from/to Mumbai from most major cities like Udaipur, Ajmer, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat, Indore, Nashik, Aurangabad, Hyderabad, Belgaum, Hubli, Bangalore, Mangalore, Trichur and Goa. For Pune, buses depart every 10 minutes. Crawford Market, Dadar T.T, Sion, Chembur and Borivili are the main starting points. Some of the reliable private operators are - National,Neeta, Sharma, VRL, Konduskar, Dolphin, Paulo and Southern Travels. ST Buses The MSRTC (Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation), (Mumbai Central: +91 22 2307 4272/ +91 22 2307 6622, Parel: +91 22 2422 9905 Dadar: +91 22 2413 6835) commonly known as ST, operates services to Mumbai from various cities in Maharashtra. Mumbai Central is the most important Terminus in the city. All major cities in Maharashtra and nearby states are connected through Mumbai Central Terminus. The other important ST depots are at Parel, Nehru Nagar-Kurla, and Borivali. You can get buses for all over Maharashtra from these depots. But from Mumbai Central you would get buses any time as well as other State Transport buses. Quality varies.

Mumbai