Mandu | India
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Mandu (City of Joy) is a small city in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India, now best known for a fort built by Baaz Bahadur in the memory of his queen Rani Roopmati. Between 1401 and 1561 it was the capital of a Muslim state in the north of India. The capital was abandoned more than 400 years ago, and it's now a small city but also home to a large ruins site more than 10 km long and 15 km wide. The temple dedicated to Shiva also attracts many pilgrims.

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1 See 1.1 Central Group 1.2 Royal Group 1.3 Rewa Kund Group 1.4 Darya Khan's Tomb Group 1.5 Sagar Talao Group 1.6 Other Monuments Hoshang Shah's Tomb Inside Jami Masjid Ashrafi Mahal Taveli Mahal Jahaz Mahal Hindola Mahal Jal Mahal from Jahaz Mahal Gada Shah's House Interiors of Baz Bahadur's Palace Roopmati's Pavilion Dai ka Mahal Dai ki Chotti Behen ka Mahal The archaeological sites of Mandu can be classified in five broad groups: Central Group Royal Group Rewa Kund Group Darya Khan's Tomb Group Sagar Talao Group Apart from these major groups there are several scattered archaeological sites all over Mandu. There are also several gateways leading to the fortified medieval settlement of Mandu. Central Group As the name suggests, the Central Group is located at the very centre of the fortified citadel of Mandu. Today it serves as the main centre of Mandu town and houses its main bus stop. It is also refereed to as the Village Group. It has four archaeological sites, Ashrafi Mahal (along with the tomb of Mahmud Khilji), Jami Masjid and Hoshang Shah's Tomb. There are also two new temples. One of them is a Jain Temple, while the other is a Ram Temple. 22.3484175.398931 Ashrafi Mahal and Mahmud Khalji's Tomb, Opposite Jami Masjid. Located opposite the Jami Masjid. The Ashrafi Mahal, probably served as a madarsa (Islamic school), adjacent to the Mosque, during the reign of Mahmud Khilji (1436 - 69). With the passage of time the Ashrafi Mahal has been reconstructed and extended several times and also have been used for several other purposes. Even the central open courtyard of the madarsa was later used for the construction of the massive tomb of Mahmud Khalji. The tomb has long collapsed. Today the Ashrafi Mahal is approached through a long flight of stairs and through a marble pavilion. The dome that crowned the pavilion has long collapsed. A passageway from the pavilion leads to a open courtyard, which once housed the tomb of Mahmud Khalji. The courtyard is lined with small cells on all four sides. The cells probably served as living quarters of students. On the four corners were minarets and during the reign of Mahmud Khalji, the minarets at the north west corner was converted into victory tower, to celebrate his victory over the Rana of Chittoor. The tower also has long collapsed and its foundation is all that remains to this day. Incidentally the Rana of Chitoor also built a victory tower, which stands to this day.  22.3484775.397432 Jami Masjid (Opposite Ashrafi Mahal). A largest and the chief mosque of Mandu. The construction of the mosque began during the reign of Hoshang Shah and was completed by Mahmud Khalji. The Jami Masjid in Mandu was modeled after the Mosque of Damascus. It is approached through a huge domed gateway on the east. The door has marble jams and lintel, which probably are reminiscent of Hindu architecture. A passageway through the gate leads to a open courtyard with flanked on three side (except west) by pillared halls, most of which have long collapsed. Straight ahead on the western side is a main prayer hall crowned with three gigantic domes, along with 58 small domes. The paryer hall consisting of an amazing amalgamation of pillaars and arches have 17 curved niches on the western wall. The elaborately decorated central marble niche serves as the main mihrab of the mosque. Just next to the main mihrab is a domed pulpit, approached by a flight of stairs. The imam lead the prayers from this pulpit.    22.348575.396233 Tomb of Hoshang Shah (Behind or west of Jami Masjid). Completed in 1440 the Hoshang Shah's tomb is the first marble structure of India. The tomb is housed in a walled complex with entrance on the northern side. On the eastern side of the complex is a pillared hall. The Tomb of Hoshang Shah is located at the center of the complex and stands on a square raised platform. Above the roof is a slightly raised platform with battlement styled edges. It is slightly smaller than the roof and houses the massive marble dome in the centre. At the four corners of the platform are four smaller domes. The entrance to the tomb is through a arched gateway on the north. The gate way is flanked by two smaller arches with decorative marble screen. The southern wall also has similar archways but all of them have decorative marble screens. At the centre of the hall stands the cenotaph of Hoshang Shah (the original grave is located below, within the platform). It is a marble structure and is built is step pyramid style. It is flanked on both side by few more cenotaphs, one the western side there is one while on the eastern side there are two. It is said that Hoshang Shah Tomb inspired the Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan's architect supposedly went to Mandu to study the tomb's architecture before building the Taj Mahal. Chief architect Hamid left an inscription on the left hand side of the arched entrance, mentioning about their visit, which can still be seen to this day.  Royal Group 22.3555175.393144 Jahaj Mahal (Ship Palace) (Sandwiched between Manju and kapoor Talao). Sunrise - Sunset. The 110 m long and 15 m broad double - storeyed building is located on a narrow strip of land between the Munj Talao and Kapur Talao, giving the appearance of a ship in water. probably built by Sultan Ghiyathuddin Khalji in the later part of the 15th century. It served as a large harem for the sultan and accommodated a staggering 15,000 women. Later it also served as the residence of Noor Jahan, the favourite queen of Mughal Emperor Jahangir.  The southern end of the double - storied building has a stairs leading directly to the terrace. The northern end of the terrace contains a swimming pool of floral design there is a similar pool just below it on the first floor. The terrace has two domed pavilion on the southern and northern end of the long Jahaz Mahal. The northern pavilion is not at the very end of the terrace but just south of the swimming pool. The pavilions still contain blue and yellow tiles. 22.356875.39295 Hindola Mahal (Swinging Palace) (North of Jahaz Mahal). The T - shaped building with sloping buttressed walls probably served as an audience hall. It was built during the reign of Sultan Ghiyathuddin Khalji in the later part of 15th century.    22.356875.3926 Royal Palace and Champa Bawdi. West of the Hindola and north of Munj Talao is the royal palace. It is in ruins. At the entrance of the royal palace is the Champa Bawdi (Bawdi means step well), it is relatively in good condition. The railing around the Champa Bawdi is a recent addition by Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Subterranean passage connects the base of the well to a series of vaulted rooms, thus keeping them cool during the scorching summer. (updated Feb 2016) North of the Champa Bawdi is the hammam (cold and hot water bath) complex, star and crescent shaped holes in the domed roof allow natural light to filter inside the dark interiors of the hammam. 22.357875.39247 Dilwara Khan's Mosque. The 1405 built Dilwara Khan's Mosque is the oldest Islamic structure of Mandu. It is located on the northern end of the Royal enclave and is the only religious structure in the Royal enclave. (updated Feb 2016) 22.356175.39128 Jal Mahal (Water Palace). (updated Feb 2016) 22.355275.39189 Munj Talao (A large lake on the western side of Jahaz Mahal). (updated Mar 2016) 22.355375.394510 Kapoor Talao (A lake on the eastern side of Jahaz Mahal). (updated Mar 2016) 22.35723775.39594411 Gada Shah's Shop. (updated Mar 2016) 22.35774875.39546612 Adheri Bawdi (Dark Step Well). (updated Mar 2016) 22.35797175.39600313 Ujawala Bawdi (Illuminated Step Well). (updated Mar 2016) 22.3545175.3939714 Taveli Mahal. (updated Aug 2017) 22.3575775.3927815 Nahar Jharokha. (updated Aug 2017) Rewa Kund Group 22.313275.406616 Rewa Kund. (updated Aug 2017) 22.31475.407717 Baz Bahadur's Palace. A palace with large courtyards surrounded by large halls and high terraces.  22.3106775.4102518 Rani Roopmati Pavilion. A sandstone structure built as an army observation post.  Darya Khan's Tomb Group 22.3378675.4016519 Darya Khan's Tomb Complex. (updated Feb 2016) 22.3378375.4022420 Darya Khan's Tomb.  22.3380775.4015721 Darya Khan's Mosque.  22.3374575.4015522 Lal Sarai.  22.3382375.4020823 Unknown Tomb.  22.3378175.4018824 Somvati Kund. (updated Mar 2016) 22.3362275.4043425 Hathi Paga Palace (Elephant Foot Palace). (updated Aug 2017) 22.335875.399226 Roja ki Makbar. (updated Aug 2017) Sagar Talao Group 22.327675.402627 Dai ka Mahal. (updated Feb 2016) 22.32875.402428 Dai ki Chhoti Bahin ka Mahal. (updated Feb 2016) 22.328375.402429 Malik Mughith's Mosque. (updated Mar 2016) 22.328375.40330 Caravan Sarai. (updated Mar 2016) 22.327875.40231 Unknown Tomb. (updated Mar 2016) 22.322175.401532 Jali Mahal (North of Sagar Talao, on top of a small mound). (updated Jun 2016) Other Monuments 22.348975.391833 Lohani Caves. (updated Jun 2016) 22.360375.396134 Delhi Gate. (updated Jun 2016) 22.342575.397335 Chappan Mahal. (updated Jun 2016) 22.329875.393336 Nil Kanth Palace. (updated Jun 2016)

Mandu